A detailed Description of Injury/Condition
Acute or Chronic
Acute injury results from a rapid, distressing event like, a fall that gives rise to fracture or sprained ankle. As an acute injury is regarded to be recent, it might also be caused by an external or internal force that might have attacked the body.On the other hand, chronic injury takes place gradually with time and can occur as a result of overuse-type injuries or even old injuries occurring from repetitive trauma instead of a single traumatic event (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). A number of times acute injuries in reality get well only to reappear on frequent or occasional basis.
Sprain, Strain, Dislocation or Type of Inflammation
Strains happen as a result of insufficient endurance or strength, insufficient flexibility, uncoordinated contraction of the muscle, poor form, inadequate warm up or insufficient rehabilitation from the last injury (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). Sprain is a tearing or stretch of ligament. Sprains are classified as grade 1 that includes slightest or minimal ligament stretch, grade 2 that comprises of partial tear of the ligament and grade 3 that include total tear of the ligament with considerable laxity or instability (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). Dislocation is caused by an immense force that detaches joint ball of the shoulder (the the top circular part of the humerus or the arm's upper bone) away from the socket of the joint (glenoid). Actually, the most often dislocated joint is the shoulder.
Shoulder instability is a term used to refer to frequent dislocations (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). Subluxation is the term used to mean partial dislocation when the humerus is partially out and partially in of a socket (Arnheim Pentice, 2012). In medical terms, dislocation is usually called luxation.
Anatomical Structures Involved
The anatomy structures involved include: cartilage, muscles, bones, tendons, humerus and ligaments.
The Possible mechanism(s) of injury or causes of the Injury/Condition
There first cause of injury is imprecise technique. Imprecise technique wrenches or rips, pulls muscles, tears fragile connective tissues very fast. In addition, contorting, turning or twisting while pushing weight also causes the injury (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). The second cause of the injury is using excessive weight when exercising. In this case, the injury occurs when lowering excessive weight as always weight follows the gravitational rule and therefore searches for the floor (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). The third cause of the injury is bad spotting. During exercising, lifting too high requires to have a spotter. The injury occur after lifting too much and missing the rep often caused by ignoring that even a competent spotter requires to be ever alert, sensitive and strong to the likelihood of failure.
The other cause of the injury is inappropriate use of forced reps and cheating. When forced reps and cheating are performed inaccurately, they pull or pushes the lifter outside the groove. As a result, the muscles falls down causing whoever was exercising to get injured (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). Overtraining is another cause of the injury. Negative overtraining affects the strength level of the whole body as well as conditioning. Overtraining also hampers the recuperation of nervous system and muscles capability- ATP and glycogen stores get extremely exhausted when a disturbed metabolic status prevails. When glycogen stores and ATP gets completely depleted an athlete becomes vulnerable to the injury when handling huge weights (Arnheim Prentice, 2012).
The other cause of the injury is lack of stretching and insufficient warm up. Lack of enough warm ups poses an individual to injuries when exercising. The other cause of the injury is poor training. In the case where one under eats and continues training heavy and hard, the chances of getting hurt increases. In this case, the injury is caused by lifting heavy weights when one has less energy thus exposing oneself to being fallen by an object or dislocation of joints (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). The other cause of the injury is poor concentration. The injuries in this scenario are caused by an athlete allowing him/herself get preoccupied or distracted by other things that are outside the exercise. The next cause of the injury is weaknesses in ligaments, tendons and muscles. For example, an unequal leg length can lead to the injury when running. Using poor equipment during exercising is another cause of the injury (Arnheim Prentice, 2012). Unchecked and unrepaired equipment like metal bars used for lifting cause serious injuries to athletes especially when they fall on them. Similarly, wearing slippery shoes when exercising causes an athlete to fall down without warning thus sustaining injuries.
The Signs and Symptoms of the Injury/Condition and Tests for Diagnosing
The first sign of the injury is joint pains that are felt in the knee's joints, wrist, elbow and ankle particularly that exceeds more than two days. The second symptom of the injury is tenderness at particular points (Keteyian, 2013). Tenderness portrays an injury when one presses a finger on a joint or somewhere else and pain elicits. The other sign of the injury is swelling. Swelling that shows a probable injury is usually accompanied by heat, redness and pain (Keteyian, 2013). The other symptom of the injury is declined movement range. In case a joint gets injured, the movement of that joint reduces significantly making one side of the body weaker than the other (Keteyian, 2013). In this case, it is commonly detected by trying to support certain weights. The other sign of the injury is tingling and numbness (Keteyian, 2013). The tests for diagnosing injuries are many that include: X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and Computerized tomography (CT) scan.
The Immediate Treatment for the Injury/Condition
First treatment is to discontinue the activity instantly. Second, if the victim is injured, cover the wounded part with a bandage (Keteyian, 2013). Third, smear ice to the wounded portion (use a crushed bag ice or a frozen vegetables bag) for about 15 minutes every time. Fourth, for the cases of preventing frostbite, allow the area to completely warm a head of another instance of ice application (Keteyian, 2013). Fifth, raise the wounded part to decrease swelling. Lastly, consult the nearest physician for appropriate diagnosis of serious injuries if any.
The Extended Treatment/Rehabilitation for the Injury/Condition
The extended treatment/rehabilitation involves five steps. First is thorough establishment of proper diagnosis. The second step is minimizing deleterious limited effects of the injury (Herring, 1990). The other step is maintaining other parts of athletic health. The last step is restoring to normal athletic operation.
Possible Surgical Repair or Reconstruction and the Rehabilitation Following Surgery
An instance of one surgical is the case of autografting of patellar tendon. The patient's patellar tendon together with a bone bung from the kneecap and shin is utilized in patellar tendon autograft. Such a patellar tendon is frequently recommended for patients who do not spend most of their moments kneeling and athletes (Arnehim Prentice, 2013). The patient can begin taking exercises right away after the successful surgery. The patient can go back to sports when swelling or pain completely goes away after achieving the full range movement of joints and appropriate operation of his/her body parts have fully recovered.
Prevention of the Injury/Condition
The first preventative measure of the injury is using the right safety equipment such as football shin guards, or rugby gum shield. The second measure is to seek coaching from experts for the purposes of learning the appropriate techniques (Keteyiang, 2013). The third measure involves sufficient warm ups ahead of exercises. The other preventative measure of preventing injury is lifting weights that one is capable of lifting (Keteyiang, 2013). The last preventative measure is to avoid pushing of the body above ones present level of fitness.
Arnheim, D. D. Prentice, W. E. (2012). Essentials of athletic training, 6th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill
Herring, S. A. (1990). Rehabilitation of muscle injuries. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 22(4), 453-456.
Keteyian, S. J. (2013). High interval intensity training Health and Fitness Journal, 17(4), 330-334.