Clinical Instructional Design and Evaluation
Comparison and contrasting of learning activities
I would like to compare and contrast the following learning activities in pairs. For example lecture and demonstration are a little bit similar, since we have a monologue speech in both cases, but in the second one it is also accompanied by pictures, sounds or video-materials, which much better for memorization. In its turn, exhibition in comparison with demonstration also has fewer advantages, since usually it is provided with a little data on what is exhibited, while demonstration is full of it. On the other hand, it is viewed by more people than in case with demonstration. Interview may be similar to panel discussions, since both of them involve people interacting among themselves. However, both of them have different objectives, since panel discussions are aimed at debating of certain issues, finding out its pros and coos or a solution, while interview consists of consecutive questions and answers, aimed at reveal of information. Case study and simulation are also a little bit similar, since they include the use of hypothetical constructions and objects. Finally, field trip is used to discover the new environment and knowledge, and role plays are aimed at unlimited expression of the thoughts and discovering of new points of view, knowledge and gives opportunity to assume roles of other people and thus appreciate another views.
Advantages and disadvantages of every learning activity and example of it
- Lecture is considered to be a monologue speech of one or more persons, namely lecturers, on certain issue before the students or others delivered with the aim to transfer the knowledge. There are a lot of advantages of lecture. For example, it provides students with the overall data concerning certain object and gives them opportunity to find out the point of view of lecturer on that or this topic. It mainly suits the persons with patient temper who does not like to discuss, but rather to listen. On the other hand, there is a little of conversations and discussions between the lecturer and auditorium, so that a lecture may be referred as one-sided play. The examples of it are a lecture delivered at the universities, schools or seminars.
- Demonstration is another way of sharing of information and its main advantages are: the audio-visual effects, which foster better memorizing and perpetuation processes. It is much better than lecture, because the text is guided by the pictures, sounds and it promotes better understanding of the data. However, it needs the high-technology services which are not always available. Demonstrations are used, for example, at the presentation of new products or innovative ideas, as well as at the studying institutions.
- The main advantage of interview is that you can see and perpetuate the person you speak with directly, so that you can infer whether the person is telling the truth or is lying. Furthermore, you can feel the nervousness, the patience or emotions of the person you are talking with. In addition, a lot of truth may be revealed during such conversations. On the other hand, these interviews may go wrong, especially when the person becomes too emotional or irritated. The conversation may be ended at once from the beginning and no information will be gotten. Interviews may be seen in different live shows on the TV.
- Case study helps students to check their knowledge and use it while deciding what solution is to be made in the case. However, they should always bear in mind that these cases are just hypothetical and are not like those which happen in every day practice, therefore, the ability to solve the problem presented in the case is not the criteria to decide whether student is competent or not in certain sphere. For an instance, case studies are usually used at the colleges and universities to show the students how some practical issues.
- Role plays stimulate students to feel like any other person and to understand the perception processes of them and to see the problems or issues from the other point of view. It even fosters the expression of views and thoughts which would ever be said by the person on her or his own behalf. This method seems to be useful especially for those people who are shy, since it lets them to be honest and say what they really think without the fear of being judged. The drawbacks concerning role-plays deals mainly with composition of the players, since it affects the method a lot. In addition, it may be ineffective method in large groups. The examples of role play are those which are conducted at different discussions, team trainings, university studies etc.
- Exhibits are aimed at demonstration of the work to general public. As a result of it the idea is spread to the big quantity of people and it may cause them to create something original too. In addition the author may ask what visitors think about his or her work and to improve the future work in accordance with it. On the other hand, exhibitions are visited by limited number of people so that not everyone participates in it. Exhibitions may be demonstrated at the galleries, for example the exhibition of Da Vinci works.
- Panels let the experts to communicate among themselves directly on certain issues in front of others. They freely express their thoughts, discuss key matters and may find a solution beneficial to every party. On the other hand, subjects of the conversation may fall out of logic order and experts can be ineffective lecturers. Panels happen very often during investigations or seminars aimed at clarification of certain topic.
- Advantages of field trip are endless. Main of them are the new environment which is open for the students or pupils and the team building, since the time spent outside makes them more close to each other. For example, a field trip to the nearest museum of history offers to students a lot of new things they have never heard of and seen before. However, the organization of trips is a rather hard work and it demands a lot of planning to be well-done, in addition, it is a risk of responsibility for teachers since the pupils are out of school that is safe environment and they can behave unexpectedly.
- Simulation can be used during the studies of different disciplines. Main advantages of simulation include the examination of system functioning without construction of it, the accuracy of results in comparison with analytic method, discoveries of unexpected features. Drawbacks involve expansive character of the research and difficulty of interpretation of results. Simulation is used, for example for the analyze of political or any other system.