Late Hominid Evolution


Late hominid evolution included Bipedal adaptation which made it possible for the hominid  to walk using two legs, this was a unique feature, that distinguished hominids from their sister primates such as chimpanzees and gorillas, a careful study of Australopithecus anamnesis brings to light  a range of primordial and higher morphological features of late evolution of  hominid.1 Coffing, et al, 1994 Specifically, argues that the study of   skeletal remains indicate a general similarity which reveal that both species had retained ape like crania, dentition and advanced postcranial, during its development. Nevertheless, Dr Leakey, et al, 199 points out that  an advanced study of   climatic trends of the Paleolithic Period bridges two geologic epochs Pliocene and Pleistocene happening which affected advancement of human societies.

Adaptation to bipedal

Clive Gamble argues that late hominid evolution had Bipedal adaptation which led to morphological alterations of the human skeleton leading to change of the assembly development of the bones of the foot, hip size and shape, knee, size, leg length, and the orientation of the vertebral alignment.2 The adaptation of c shaped spine made it possible to stands up and balance weight of the body and the knee cap on the legs supported the amount of weight increase down the spine. In addition, hominid leg bones and preserved trails of footprints point out that major changes of bipedal walking came into being  very soon after the human evolutionary  diverged from the African apes. For this reason, Bipedal has been considered by scientists as a major turning point in human evolution, bringing forth  hypotheses which seek to prove the its importance. For example, bipedal brought greater efficiency in solving the problem of reaching more distanced branches to harvest fruits and nuts, a higher ability to drive away heat from the body, carrying food and infants, handling tools and weapons and fighting and running making it possible to flee from enemy quickly.

Development and adaptation of behavior and intelligence

Secondly, the Shift and the transition of human behavior were depicted by the increase of the brain size which enhanced bipedal locomotion.3 Jordi Augusta And Mauricio puts the matter under discussion to light by arguing that Walking in an upright posture showed how natural selection gradually assisted in hominid evolution in improvement of the human behavior.

4In reference to Clive Gamble the size of the brain increased the intelligence in that it enhanced different adaptive forms, like the use of tools, which also suggested the kind of food which they ate, evidence indicate that hominid lived in small social group, reproduced, socialized , learned, solved problems and used acquired skills to search resources from their environments. He further explains how Sexual selection theory points out how women are attracted to powerful males, not because powerful males can beat them up, but because powerful males can protect them and their children from enemies and other males.

5Careful investigation of the dental formulae of Australopithecus anamnesis reveals that it was ape like. Clive Gamble asserts that hominid exhibits many prehistoric features precisely outsized canines which are parallel rather than being parabolic tooth rows, it also had uneven premolars and molars. In general, the dentition of anamnesis was very primitive for a hominid. However, derived features are present, features which are not evident in Ardipithecus ramidus. Has a thick broadly enamel Tooth expanded producing a smaller length to breadth ratio. On the other hand, the postcranial of Australopithecus anamnesis reveals that the skeletal elements were like that of bipedal hominid. The excavation of a tibia from the upper Kanapoi stratum has provided the best clues concerning A. anamnesis’ locomotors capacity. Johansen and Edgar, 1996 point out that, the distal tibia portion is thick in areas that are subject to high forces of stress during bipedal locomotion.

Further knowledge of late hominid evolution is demonstrated by which Natural selection which occurs in modern human populations.6     Jordi Augusta argues that population which is at risk of the severe debilitating disease has a significant adaptation to the environment over representation of an immune variant. This is due to is due to the survival of immune persons. For instance evolutionary trends in hominid populations include a lengthening of the reproductive period, reduction in cholesterol levels, blood glucose and blood pressure to increase survival over the past ten thousand years, he further points out that human being evolution has been taking place and has resulted in development of agriculture and civilization some years resulting to substantial genetic differences between different current human populations. Biologists classification of  humans, along with only a few other species such as  great apes species in the family and analysis of over 400 primates of DNA mitochondrial strands  indicate  that primates belong to the same  family  group.

In conclusion late hominid evolution is real and still continues to take place through environmental adaptation selection for survival.