Ovarian Cancer

Introduction

Ovarian cancer is one of the main deadliest cancers in women; this is because it is frequently identified at an advanced phase. It occurs most commonly in women who are around 50 and 65 years of age. The duration risk of formation of ovarian growth is 1.4 to 1.8 percent only in women staying in U.S.

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent tumor in women, after lung bowel, breast, and uterine tumors. Each year approximately 6,800 women in the United Kingdom are found affected with the sickness. If the infection is found in its premature stages, around 90% of women will endure at least for more than five years. Unfortunately, most women are not found with ovarian tumors at early age up to when it has already widen up and this makes successful cure difficult, and survival rate of Cancer . Thus cancer is an illness caused by an irregular development of cells, also called tumor. It is among a 100 different diseases, and is not infectious. (Tasota, 2007)

The ovaries are one the parts of a female’s reproductive organisms. They are located at pelvis. And each ovary is almost the mass of an almond. The ovaries make women’s hormones known as progesterone and estrogen. They also discharge eggs. An egg moves from an ovary via fallopian tube to the uterus (womb).

When a woman starts going through her menopause (change of life), her ovaries stops releasing eggs and creates lesser levels of hormones. Cancer or tumors starts in cells, and these are the building block that composes tissues. A tissue forms the organ systems of the body. Usually, a cell develops and separates to structure new cells which are needed by the body. When a cell matures, they die, and the new cells take their place.

Occasionally, this arranged development goes wrong. And the new cells are formed when the body does not require them, and the mature cell delay to die on time. These additional cells can form a lump of tissue known as tumor or growth.

Pathophysiology: Symptoms and causes of the ovarian cancer

Symptoms includes:-

Early ovarian growth cannot cause apparent symptoms. Although, as the cancer develops symptoms may include

  • Pressure or tenderness  in the abdomen, legs pelvis, or back,
  • Inflamed  or stuffed abdomen
  • Vomiting , indigestion, gas,  diarrhea, or constipation
  • abdominal stuffing
  • throbbing during sexual intercourse
  • persistent tiredness
  • abdominal weight increase
  • rapid unexplained weight loss or weight increase
  • Vulva or Vaginal discomforts

Less common symptoms include:

  • squatness of breath
  •  Feeling the urge to urinate regularly
  •  abnormal vaginal bleeding (bleeding after menopause or heavy periods)
  •  alteration in bowel tendencies like diarrhea or constipation
  •  pelvic soreness or anxiety

Mainly the above indications are not because of tumor, thus doctor’s advice in essential in order be sure. Any woman with these symptoms should tell her doctor. (Douglas, 1992)

Causes and risk factors

Its cause is not yet known. But only approximately 5% of ovarian tumor cases are linked to the inherited genetic materials which are called BRCA gene

Risk factors:-

Age: Most ovarian growth occurs after change of life. Half of the affected are women of 63 years of age.

Having children: A woman who has capacity to bear children has a lower threat of ovarian tumor than those women cannot give children. This threat begins and continues with each stage pregnancy. A woman who breast feed lowers the chances of getting the ovarian cancer. Also the usage of birth control pills (the pills) also reduces the threat of the tumor if they are used for more than five years.

Female surgery: Those women who have their “tubes tied” (tubal ligation) may lower the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Also the removal of the womb without removing the ovaries (a hysterectomy) is most likely, to lower the chances of developing ovarian cancer.

Fertility drugs: Some writers have found that usage of fertility drug like citrate clomiphene (Clomid) in more than one year, most likely when pregnancy has not taken place, may increase the chances ovarian tumors.

Male hormones: Males have hormones known as androgens. According to the research, women were found to taking androgens having   higher chances of ovarian tumors.

Estrogen treatment and hormone treatment:  Recent studies points out those women who use estrogens after menopause has high rates of getting ovarian cancer. In the study it indicated that women using estrogen alone are at high risk (without progesterone).

Family background of ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer or breast cancer:

 Ovarian tumors have occurrence in families. There are high chances to get the tumor if in the generation there is someone who had the disease. Increased chances for ovarian tumor does do not follow the descent one comes from whether the partilenial or matrilineal it can be either your father’s or your mothers side. Having a family relative with breast tumors can also increase the chances of getting ovarian cancer. Many familial ovarian tumors are caused by inherited gene alterations that can be found if genetic testing is done. (Schmeler, 1995)

Genetic changes and condition: Some of inherited gene alterations (mutations) can increase the chances of developing ovarian cancer. This involves changes in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. During birth one can   inherit alteration of the genes from the parent, chances of getting ovarian and breast tumors are high.

Diet: Some researchers on the women study who studied on a low-calorie diet for less than 4 years pointed out that there is a lower chance of ovarian cancer in women who took a diet rich in vegetables.

Heath problem with other diseases

Sometimes the patient may want to know how therapy may change there regular activities. The patient and doctor can have unity and develop a treatment procedure that meets patient’s medical and personal desires. Because curing of cancer often destroys healthy cells and ligaments, and side effects are usual. The side effects depend mostly on the type and level of the treatment. Side effects are different in women and they may change from one session of treatment to the other.

A patient has ovarian tumor undergoes radiation treatment which is also known radiotherapy. This therapy uses high amount of energy rays to destroy cancer cells. A large machine is used to direct energy on the body. Radiation treatment is not often used in the initial stage therapy or remedy of ovarian cancer, but mostly is used to reduce pain and other problems caused by the illness and this treatment is only done at the hospital prescribed by the doctors.

The side effects can only be detected mainly due to the amount of radiation prescribed and the organ of your body that is being treated. Radiation treatment to your pelvis and abdomen may cause vomiting, diarrhea or bloody stools and nausea, Also, skin area treated may become red, dehydrated, and tender. Even though the side effects can be painful, doctor can habitually treat or control them. Besides, they slowly go away after cure ends. (Cannistra, 2004)

Related Treatment methods

Doctor can illustrate your treatment options and the anticipated results. Most women undergo operation and chemotherapy. Rarely, radiation treatment is used to heal cancer and can affect cancer cells in the abdomen, and cells in the pelvis, in the entire the body:

  • Local treatment: Surgery and radiation treatment are referred to as local therapies. They destroy ovarian tumor in the pelvis. When ovarian tumor has multiplied to other organ of the body, local treatment can be used to control the illness in those particular areas
  • Intra-peritoneal chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is administered directly into the   abdomen and pelvis using a thin tube and the drugs or control tumor in the and pelvis and abdomen
  • Total chemotherapy: If chemotherapy is taken by mouth or introduced into a vein, the drugs enter the arteries and system of the blood and destroy or control or destroy cancer in the whole body. (Guzman & Norton, 1992)

Nursing Physical assessment and intervention

A nursing evaluation includes a physical inspection: the examination or quantity of signs, which can be considered, or symptoms like vomiting or vertigo, which can be experienced by the patient. The method used may involve Inspection, Auscultation, Palpation, and Percussion and also to the “important signs” of respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, pulse and further assessment of the body coordination e.g. the cardiovascular system

Nursing care plan

A nursing care procedure shows the nursing care to be given to an individual or family or the community at large. It is a set of behaviors the nurse will establish to hold nursing diagnoses recognized by nursing assessment. The development of the procedure is an intermediate period of the nursing course. It directs in the ongoing stipulation of nursing care and supports in the assessment of that care.

Evaluation (Following Patients for Disease Recurrence) the nurses and doctors take a proactive method to following patients strictly for recurrent illness. This is because doctor and nurses believe in making a difference in having longer life and securing quality of life if they find recurrent growth earlier and they treat them efficiently and effectively. Follow-up schedules are made at every three months for around the first five years and also at every six months of the 5 years following diagnosis and yearly afterward

Recommendations

Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease therefore women are advised to go for check up at an early stage and they should contact the doctors and if found to be affected they should be treated on time and the patients and nurses should look for the recurrent of the disease for treatment.