Globalization

Introduction

Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King, both renowned sociologists, define globalization as a process through which people from all countries of the world are incorporated into a single world society. It encompasses an integration and increase of world-wide trade by large companies availing goods and services, while influencing cultural services, which become similar in all parts of the world. Globalization was timely in its inception and was widely acknowledged by the economists. It is absolutely credible to hail globalization for the very many developments around the globe. Despite the benefits acknowledged, it equally has associated negative effects as explored in this essay. However, the positive effects far much outweigh the negative ones. The following paper will discuss both positive and negative sides of globalization.

Globalization and Its Positive Sides

First, the art of standardization of various world products due to globalization has been revisited which much specialization on the education sectors and institutions. Globalization has made it possible to compare various world education systems and their effectiveness over the long term (Martin &Rhoten, pp 5-8).Education in most countries of the world has undergone greater transformation in the past three centuries.

Second, with regard to technology, Martin and Rhoten (pp 4-8) assert in the comparative study of education vis-a-vis globalisation that both elements are interdependent and confer great economic and political benefits upon most countries, which take part in the globalization process. The benefits further outweigh the negative consequences. For instance, knowledge transfer was facilitated through technology. The countries benefit from each other due the trade conventions and supports structures formed through agreements that are established at various world conferences. In that respect the quality of education has improved significantly, and it keeps improving with further advancement and penetration of technology into more countries of the world.

Thirdly, it has culminated into a Global culture, since it initiated the basis of the new world as a result of the formation process through integration (Mike,pp 135-143).Modernity is transitional in this case and different world cultures are equally transformed. In the decades to come, it is anticipated that some of the cultures of the world will diminish and they are already at the phase of extinction. This can be attributed to the “desirable” culture due to westernization. The effects of westernization point to the fact that formation of any new culture is a transformational process which must have a centre of diffusion while it extends to other boundaries beyond its own.

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Conditional goodness of globalization that lends full support of globalization in favour of poor countries is plausible, but not independently considered; it must be two-fold. An investigation into the cause, effect and wealth of nations seems to buy greater part of this point of view. It is true that corporations everywhere focus on maximizing their profits, but a strong framework and regulation must be formulated and enforced if the profit seeking motive is to produce social benefits. The fastest growing incomes and nations are in the developing countries.

This is a true indication of global integration as a powerful force for development that reduces inequality. The key in upholding this point of view is the formulation of regulations to safeguard the available structures.

Negatives of Globalization

According to Krugman and Venables, (pp 857-80), globalization caused inequality of nations over the long run in terms of product rating.

The less developed countries with inferior technologies present manufactured products that are not highly competitive in the world market, where majority of the consumed commodities are standardized. This has got a negative implications since the economies of these nations grow unequally; the overall implication is that the standard of living in the two categories in which various nations’ and states belong is different. Global integration creates winners and losers, and due to this reason it is likely to increase inequality since the richer nations are likely to gain more than the poor nations.

In their work, the Globalization and Inequality of Nations (1995), the authors state that critical approach in dealing with the elements of globalization faced high opposition from most of the economists. Simultaneously, a positive acknowledgement and accreditations are accorded this courageous act of foresightedness.

The businesses of the world have transformed since technology has facilitated the whole process of transformation of the nature of competition according Saskia. (pp162-74) In order for the businesses to enhance their bottom line, it is indubitable that in their execution of expansion strategies, apart from the high expenditure, the multinational businesses have to overcome the two major hurdles of social and political barriers.

The work of Grisworld Daniels, The Blessing and Burdens of Globalization expounds further on the pros and cons of globalization with much emphasis on the economic and social impacts of global integration. It is noted that the gap between the rich and the poor is getting wider, while the less developed countries have high ratio of Gini coefficient. Emerging problems related to globalization include the wide spreading pollution arising especially out of the developed countries’ industries. This happens due to increased production to meet the global demands in terms of quantities. Grisworld (74) recommends various possible approaches that can be employed to minimise these negative effects, but the cost and the effort required is an outright assurance that it is not a walk in the path for the young and infant industries. The increased trade has led to upsurge in pollution and it contributes to carbon dioxide emissions and accelerated depletion of non-renewable resources.

The argument in support of global manufacturing tends to assert some skewed degree of reasoning. Despite the overriding truth that globalization has advantages and disadvantages, the assertion is that the developed countries have highly reeled from the negative effects.

For instance, the United States of America and other European countries experienced little long-term impacts in unemployment and job losses while the developing countries had devastating effects due to the same effects of globalization. The situation is still critical and has inherent negative prospects that threatened most of the developing economies.

Globalization nurture within its systems the culture of specialization, such as being over reliant on producing a limited variety of market goods for the global exchange markets. It is quite unhealthy since unanticipated instantaneous decline in the global demand can plunge an economy into a recession, such as the sufferance brought upon the developing countries due to overspecialization.

Finally, interdependence of economies is good, but globalization has fostered more than just interdependence. The developing countries and weak economies are increasingly depending on the developed countries for a significant portion of their economic requirements for sustenance reasons. This is a significantly dangerous situation that a country can find itself in. In spite of the priorities offered, it is easy to manipulate such countries and this makes them very vulnerable economically. It behoves the modern scientists to make attempts to reduce the detrimental impacts of globalization. Countries which are highly dependent on one another have associated risks; a negative economic shock in one can easily spread to the other.

Conclusion

Having advanced the above arguments, it is prudent to state that all the nations re-establish a new system which should serve to check against other countries’ infant industries. Globalization is equally affected by political decisions and the level of stability in the respective countries. The world institutions, such as the United Nations and the European Union among others, should strictly observe their laid out conditions and regulations, which define their relationship with other countries on a very friendly bases. Such agreement, especially of economic concerns, should be honoured for the betterment of all parties.

The possibilities and strength, the frequent movement of technology has conferred upon the countries the ability to mind their social political and economic environments, which are positively admired on a global scale, However, globalization hurts so many countries and diminishes their potential to realize their growth especially as far as economic power is concerned. Countries of the world should positively embrace globalization in order to avoid being left behind, the technologies that are shared are very much capable despite being outwitted in competition, and the general performance would be worth emulating.

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