Professor Jennifer Wicke has brought up many interesting ideas, mostly difficult to grasp. The papers and articles formulated by her, illustrate explicit readings and comments, which make it easy to understand various possible dimensions of postmodernism relevant for legal academic work and relevant to the lawyers as well. Expository studies and essay by Jennifer Wicke investigate the ideas, expound on them, evaluate the evidences, and finally set forth concise and lucid arguments. The essay tackled here comes from the back of the book Tess of the D’Urbervilles, written by Thomas Hardy and edited by John Paul Riquelme. The stated book, with a red and black cover having the stated essay on its 571 page written by Jennifer Wicke with the title “The Same and the Different: Standard and Standardization in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of D'Urbervilles”. The Riquelme’s referred volume of Tess of the D'Urbervilles is closed by stated strong essay by the professor Wicke informed by the “Cultural Criticism”. The essay is accomplished through contrast and comparison, analysis of effects and its causes, definitions and examples, and so forth. In this essay, Jennifer Wicke explores centrality of the measuring and labeling along through the novel. Moreover, she charts and list downs the significance of the gestures and such acts against the rising trend of standardization by the end of last decay of nineteenth century. As it is argued by the Wicke in her essay, Tess is "synecdoche: the part [stands] in for the whole" (571) just like that of Tess who is a one among many women who have evaluated and write against the womanhood, that comes to stand for (or as) only one type of woman. The stated type of woman is one whose standards for womanhood labeled her as “Damaged Goods” and like that. The reading by the Wicke is depending upon appreciation by her readers regarding the “Market Place” with in both the Hardy’s culture and the novel by the Hardy. She has discussed in her essay that how the invisible markets tried to replace the fair of markets as the social changes and engine of economy have been changed with the passage of time (573). She has placed the heroine of the novel and the novel itself as a marketable and sellable goods and commodities as the item for sale in the markets and shops (574). For the Jennifer Wicke the novel is participating in the moment in which the standard and its notion are going to be crystallized in various dissimilar and different practices of culture. It also participates for Wicke as a moment the word standard is concretized as the concept of culture (575). Along this moment, the face of Tess is functioned as the “market Token” (583). Her value (more specifically and importantly her devaluation and loss of her face), predicts and estimates the human cost and prices of the standardization processes. The essay has asked from its readers about the person who is responsible for the formulation and setting of standards, the standards i.e. The Tess ends up on scaffolds (587). The staggering and beautifully formulated analysis by the Jennifer Wicke is demonstrating the usefulness and necessaries of the Cultural Criticism in order to investigate literarily and even closes the Riquelme's edition of the novel at its amazing note.
As it is suggested by the paper that it is common perception the postmodernism is the set of historical description and conditions of our currently prevailing cultural setup. Wicke talks about how the culture and economy around Tess has changed from farm life with manual labor to economy life working with machines and how her worth changed with the times as it did in the novel. It speaks of her identity crisis and he r struggle with fitting in both in the book and the article. It sets up the marketplace to be a place of exchange of good and how she herself is labeled as damaged goods.
The essay of Jennifer Wicke suggests that the postmodernism might be thought as the set of historical and past descriptions and conditions of currently prevailing cultural situations and conditions. The essay suggests completely different styles of question than that of typical and traditional set of questions to ask including whether or not the law itself is the part of postmodern culture. The doctrinal material regarding laws, various methodologies adopted and institutions established are itself are postmodern or not and a like that. The professor Wicke has developed he set of various attitudes about the cultural developments and the various attitudes which she has associate with three discussed analysts including Baudrillard, Lyotard, Baudrillard. The postmodernism is the way, as stated by her, of behaving, dressing, talking and acting for those who are cultural studies persons. As long as it is not understood in categorical way and fashion, these maneuvers could become part of tool kit of legal sciences. The delicacy has been arisen due to the reason that the Jennifer Wicke is not the only reviewer and writer of the cultural aspects.
The essay written by Wicke in Tess of D’Urbervilles by Hardy has critically introduced new case studies in cultural criticism and the critical introduction to the work for the advanced undergraduates. The critical cultural criticism done by the Wicke is the anthropology of the novel. Her investment in cultural anthropology provides the exploration of place for sacrifice and ritual in Tess that shows how the Hardy had reversed and typical and traditional outcome and use of ritual culture. The referred essay by the Wicke is parallel to that are written by the Garret Stewart and Riquelme, in arguments and subject which are very much difficult to differentiate at the same time. This is because the fact that it would be misleading to the readers to conclude that the outputs and outcomes of the stated methodologies are at the same time will be misleading. As it is stated above that the essay “Standard and Standardization in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles” is the reading focusing over the culture and contain the cultural criticism, Wicke has focused on labeling throughout the in it. She has formulated certain gestures and the acts which represents her criticism on popularity and rise of the standardization which refers to the implementation of designs, measurements and guidance in order to overcome the lacking of disorganized systems. While the purpose of criticism over the standards and the standardization as it is stated in the essay can be to help with the independence of compatibility, safety, quality, and commoditization and customization. The essay of Wicke returns the concepts of what is called as the “Echoic Language”. The echoic language is initially mentioned in the introduction, which infect make the essay less useful, effective, and somewhat less original than that it does might be. Since her reading and use of stated phenomena has been already sketched, it is not used in its true sense. This echoic language freedom and uncertainty in the Tess of the D’Urbervilles placed the Tess in anti-realistic tradition and also considers the Wicke’s consistent doubling and reversal to the argument that such developments is the culture would be resulted in to the chiasmatic culture.
Finally, Professor Wicke has developed the set of attitude about this postmodern cultural development, attitudes that she associates with three major postmodern cultural analysts that she discusses including Jameson, Lyotard and Baudrillard. It can be note that postmodernism is a way of dressing, behaving, acting, and talking for those who are the cultural studies persons. In this view, the postmodernism would be the critical and academic style, exemplified by the postmodernists.
- Thomas Hardy, “Tess of the D’Urbervilles”, John Paul Riquelme’s Edition, 1891.